The short version of human history might go something like this: First we were prey, then we were hunter-gatherers, then farmers — and from that came civilization.Not quite, said James Scott, a celebrated Yale political scientist who delivered the first of the season’s Tanner Lectures on Human Values Wednesday (May 4) in Lowell Lecture Hall. In fact, he said, humankind — attached to foraging — embraced the growing of fixed crops only reluctantly, following millennia of halting and hesitation.After all, making the transition from nature to civilization required trading a complex system of diverse nutrition and robust health (foraging) for a more regimented style of living that shortened lives and replaced leisure with drudgery (farming). Borrowing a phrase from an earlier scholar, Scott called early hunter-gatherers “the original affluent society.”But embrace agriculture we did, eventually. It was a step that also made nation-states possible, which in Scott’s view triggered large-scale, authoritarian styles of governance that have — and still do — misguidedly control human enterprise from a central core of power.As a result, history is littered with the utopian failures of states that use central planning to manage activities like farming, said Scott — often with murderous results. (Think of China’s disastrous Great Leap Forward, for instance, or the Soviet Union’s clumsy collectivist farms.)Scott, invited to deliver the Tanner Lectures in their 33rd year, directs the Agrarian Studies Program at Yale and is a student of peasant politics, revolution, class relations, and anarchy.The prestigious Tanner Lectures are delivered by different scholars annually at nine universities in the United States and abroad, the legacy of the late Utah industrialist Obert Tanner. At Harvard, they are sponsored by the Office of the President and by the Mahindra Humanities Center.Scott has devoted decades of scholarship to investigating authoritarian governance and the coercive state projects that result, including those that are merely irritating (taxes and conscription) to those state projects that are tragic (slavery and warfare). Just the titles of his books speak volumes: “The Art of Not Being Governed” (2009), for instance, or “Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed” (1997).A counterpoint to these coercive states, Scott says in his scholarship, are the various “nonstate peoples” that resist dominance — outsiders of every kind, be they Berbers, bedouins or simply the homeless.Scott began his first of two Tanner Lectures with a confession: that his books so far have failed to completely explore the oldest state project of them all — “sedentarization,” the attempt by governments of every stripe, in every age, “to assemble rural people on fixed agricultural fields,” corralling them into political bodies that never seem to quite work.Being corralled this way is an unlikely fate for a species that spent the first 97 percent of its time on Earth as hunter-gatherers, said Scott, a lifestyle in which large-scale governance was impossible. The puzzle is “how we as a species ended up assembled in great clumps,” he said, “growing grain, tending livestock, and governed by the political units we call states and empires.”But the Tanner Lectures were an inspiration to unravel that puzzle, said Scott, though at “breakneck speed” and without the trappings of scholarship. Today’s (May 5) lecture will be more about those states and empires, he said, but the first — on May 4 — laid out the factors that led humankind reluctantly from free, roaming lives to lives of civilization, stasis, and encirclement around the domus — the ever more important home.That transition, over millennia, required three “world-shaping” forms of domestication, said Scott — of fire, plants, and animals. And once those three were tamed and contained, so was the fourth; humankind itself, he said, was the last of “Four Domestications,” the title of the first lecture.Domesticating fire came first and made all the others possible, said Scott. It transformed humans from the object of prey into an emerging dominant species with a source of warmth, light, safety, and cooked food.Cooking was a revolution that allowed Homo sapiens to reduce its gut, grow its brain, and expand its range of food sources.Around 500,000 years ago, fire also became humankind’s “greatest tool for reshaping the natural world,” said Scott — a means of transforming land into a diverse, renewed, and fertilized landscape of berry bushes and other sources of food. Fire-blackened fields were still a long way from the grain fields and the livestock pens of a much later era, he added, but they enabled humankind to “surround itself with its needs close at hand” for the first time.“Fire was our trump card as a species,” said Scott, and made once weak humans into “the world’s most successful invasive.”That domesticating plants was a strategy for species success is a harder argument to make, he said. For millennia, in fact, farming was overshadowed by foraging. But population pressures helped establish the idea of deliberate crops.In the end, farms became the locus of “fully domesticated plants,” favorite grains and fruits that were dependent on human attention, said Scott. Once humankind took “that fatal step” into farming full time, the routines required set the tempo of life itself, reshaped gender roles, and became “the very center of the civilizing process.”Harvard President Drew Faust introduced James Scott, the celebrated Yale political scientist who delivered the first of the season’s Tanner Lectures on Human Values, on May 4.Farming also brought into a tighter sphere all of the natural things humans needed to live: fire, plants, and eventually domesticated animals, which became a sort of penned game as well as renewable sources of calories like milk, cheese, and eggs. In all, farms drew “denser and denser rings around the domus itself,” said Scott, and became a means to “relocate the natural environment” at the very door of a person’s house.The domestication of animals — in place at first about 8,000 years ago in the case of sheep, goats, and pigs — was in part made possible by grain farming. Farm animals also became “servant foragers” of a sort, said Scott, docile beings capable of eating all kinds of inedible plant matter and turning it into calories humans could use.The same animals could “mimic the effects of fire,” he said, by clearing land, after a fashion, and fertilizing fields.But the “Neolithic revolution” of farming came with consequences, said Scott. He outlined a grim narrative that contradicts the one we learn in school, in which the superiority of farming is “underwritten by a powerful mythology.”Part of that pro-agriculture myth was that “no one chose to remain nomadic,” said Scott, but in fact farming for millennia just supplemented foraging, and did not replace it.A permanent move to farming also brought increased mortality rates, smaller bodies, bone and teeth deformities, and iron deficiencies that hit women hardest. Cultivated plants were more reliable, but they were less nutritious too. Gone also were the complex sources of calories obtained by foraging, replaced by a diminished variety of grains.In addition, farms meant greater population density, closer contact with animals, and the attendant “heaps of pests and pathogens,” said Scott — a “perfect epidemiological storm” for humans already weakened by their increasing domestication. In all, he said, civilization’s embrace of farming meant a “slow-motion plunge” from health to disease.But there is a paradox too, said Scott; a rise in birthrates came with the rise of agriculture. The “complex reasons” for that, he promised, would be part of today’s lecture.The second of two Tanner Lectures by James Scott — “The Long Golden Age of Barbarians, a.k.a. Non-State Peoples” — is at 4 p.m. today (May 5) at the Lowell Lecture Hall. Harvard’s Sugata Bose is the respondent, as Veena Das was for the first lecture. A related seminar is scheduled for 10 a.m. Friday (May 6) in the Barker Center’s Thompson Room. James Scott will be joined by Partha Chatterjee of Columbia University and by Harvard’s Arthur Kleinman and Lucie White.
WEST BURLINGTON, Iowa – The Deery Brothers Summer Series returns to a very familiar venue for its 31st opening night and ends with a Month of More Money in September.Touring IMCA Late Models start their 2017 campaign on Saturday, April 1 at 34 Raceway. That event marks the series’ 49th appearance – more than at any other track – at West Burlington and its first there since 2013.“The first-ever series race was held at 34 Raceway so we’ve got a lot of history there,” noted Tour Director Kevin Yoder. “I know a lot of our drivers as well as fans that follow the Deery Series have been looking forward to returning.”The Sept. 2 Yankee Dirt Classic main event at Farley Speedway pays $7,500 to win while a bonus of as much as $1,500 awaits the winner of the Sept. 7 show during the IMCA Speedway Motors Super Nationals fueled by Casey’s at Boone Speedway.Dates April 8 at West Liberty Raceway, April 14 at Farley, April 15 at Independence Motor Speedway and April 23 at Dubuque Speedway precede the start of the track point season.The series is at Quad City Speedway on May 14 and at Boone Speedway for the traditional Memorial Day show on May 29.Doubleheaders with the Arnold Motor Supply Hawkeye Dirt Tour for IMCA Modifieds follow June 6 at Marshalltown Speedway and June 13 at West Liberty.Completing the schedule are Farley’s Sept. 1-2 Yankee, the Super Nationals event at Boone and the Sept. 22-23 Liberty 100 at West Liberty, which wraps up with both points and pay-only features.All features pay a minimum of $2,000 to win and $300 to start.“The sponsorship from the Deery Brothers Automotive Group really steers this ship and entering a 26th year working with them is very significant,” Yoder said.“Casey’s General Store is back as sponsor on the nightly redraw program and Sunoco Race Fuels will give $250 to a random feature qualifier with perfect attendance each night,” he continued. “This schedule is very travel-friendly and I anticipate very competitive races on the track and in the point standings.”Champion of the 2016 series was Tyler Bruening of Decorah. Darrel DeFrance of Marshalltown has competed at all 467 events in series history.2017 Deery Brothers Summer Series Schedule – Saturday, April 1 at 34 Raceway, West Burlington; Saturday, April 8 at West Liberty Raceway; Friday, April 14 at Farley Speedway; Saturday, April 15 at Independence Motor Speedway; Sunday, April 23 at Dubuque Speedway; Sunday, May 14 at Quad City Speedway, East Moline, Ill.; Monday, May 29 at Boone Speedway; Tuesday, June 6 at Marshalltown Speedway; Tuesday, June 13 at West Liberty Raceway; Friday and Saturday, Sept. 1 and 2 at Farley Speedway; Thursday, Sept. 7 at Boone Speedway; Friday and Saturday, Sept. 22 and 23 at West Liberty Raceway.
Argos One Shot off Lead at Regionals May 1, 2007LAKELAND, Fla. – Fourth ranked West Florida gained ground on tournament leader and first ranked Florida Southern at the NCAA II South Regional Championships in second round action today. The Argonauts are one shot off the pace going into tomorrow’s final round.Both West Florida and second ranked Rollins made a run at Florida Southern. Rollins shot a 307 to break even with Florida Southern at 611 for the tournament. West Florida shot a 308, and is one shot behind Rollins and Florida Southern at 612. The Argos were six shots behind yesterday’s leader Florida Southern going into today’s second round.Despite catching up with Florida Southern, UWF dropped to third from second place. The top two teams and top two individuals not on one of the advancing teams will qualify for the NCAA II Women’s National Championships on May 9-12 at Stonebrook Golf Club in Pace, Fla.Fifth ranked Nova Southeastern shot 18 strokes better today than they did yesterday. Their 299 today puts them in fourth with a 616. Seventh ranked Barry has a 623 following today’s 308, and third ranked Lynn has a 625 following today’s 311.Natalia Espinosa (Bogota, Colombia) shot a team high 72 today to put her in fourth place. She has a 148, +4 (76-72). Vicky Jackson (Ft. Walton Beach, Fla. / Ft. Walton HS) and Sarah Nicholson (Cedar Falls, Iowa / Cedar Falls HS) are tied for 15th. Jackson has a 154, +10 (76-78) and Nicholson has a 154, +10 (75-79). Clara Fornella (Montvideo, Uruguay) is tied for 19th with a 156, +12 (77-79). Rachel Christ (Charlotte, N.C. / Robinson HS) has a 179, +35 (88-91). She is in 32nd place.For detailed results check the “schedule/results” page at women’s golf on goargos.com. The tournament is being hosted by Florida Southern at The Club at Eaglebrooke in Lakeland, Fla. Tomorrow’s final round gets underway at 7 a.m. eastern time. Follow the tournament using Golfstat’s live scoring system linked on the women’s golf page at goargos.comPrint Friendly Version Share
London, United Kingdom | AFP | English Football League clubs are risking bankruptcy by chasing promotion to the Premier League where they face “economic exhaustion” trying to compete with established sides, financial experts said on Tuesday.Between the 2008-09 and 2015-16 seasons, 19 clubs gained promotion from the Championship to the top flight, with Hull, Norwich and QPR going up twice and Burnley three times.Of these, only Crystal Palace avoided making a loss, with average losses among the 19 of more than £300,000 per week, said the report by Vysyble.Most clubs made money in their first Premier League season but after four years just one in four was still in the black.One in three of the clubs was immediately relegated and two in three were down again within three years.The “Over the Line” report highlighted the “economic exhaustion” caused by trying to compete with the more established Premier League clubs.Vysyble’s Roger Bell said many fans and owners of clubs in the English Football League (EFL) see promotion to the top flight as a “golden ticket to untold riches” but in reality trying to stay in the Premier League is “ultimately loss-making”. Share on: WhatsApp This “financial over-exertion” can lead to long-term problems, Bell said, which cannot be solved by parachute payments to relegated clubs, even though they can now total more than £90 million ($119 million).“EFL clubs who spend beyond their means are, in fact, risking their futures by chasing a dream that is just that, a dream, and one that is actually more likely to end up as a financial nightmare,” Bell added.According to the report, Blackburn, Bolton and Fulham are examples of this, while both Aston Villa and Sunderland face similar challenges.But a spokesman for the EFL said the league was in a strong financial position and that no club had been through an insolvency process for several years.“Reports of this nature inflame the position and confuse the reality of the situation for supporters,” he added.The Premier League declined to comment on the report.
George Kittle’s 13 catches (134 yards) matched Eric Johnson’s single-game franchise record for a tight end, and Kittle (2,780 yards) surpassed Mike Ditka’s NFL record for most yards among tight ends in their first three years. So don’t go blaming Kittle for fumbling short of … CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos or videos on a mobile deviceSANTA CLARA — Here is how the 49ers (11-3) graded in Sunday’s 29-22 home loss to the Atlanta Falcons (5-9):PASS OFFENSE: C+
Get inspired with these captivating low light videos shot on the Sony a7S.When the Sony a7S was released just one year ago, it was instantly praised for its incredible low light performance. While it’s not perfect, it’s still a fantastic camera that any indie filmmaker should try at least once. If you’re interested in what the low light potential of the a7S is, check out a few of the following videos. All of the videos feature footage shot on the Sony a7S with varying degrees of darkness.Aside from shooting incredible low light footage, the a7S also has very good dynamic range performance. If you want to learn more check out the a7S specs article here on PremiumBeat.1. MoonlightCreated By: Carbon StudiosGear: Sony a7S, Metabones EF to NEX Smart AdapterII, Zeiss 55mm 1.4 Otus, and Zeiss 28mm 2.02. Now I SeeCreated By: Phillip BloomGear: Sony a7S, Canon 24-70 f/2.8, Canon 70-200 F/2.8, Sigma 35mm ART f/1.4, and Sigma 50mm ART f/1.43. Maui + Lana’iCreated By: Kaz KangGear: Sony a7S, Voigtlander and Nikkor lenses, and Ninja Blade4. Starry NightsCreated By: ArranalpsGear: Sony a7S, Glass Unknown5. SoaringCreated By: Ole C. SalomonsenGear: Sony a7S, Various Lenses, DJI Ronin, Dynamic Perception Stage One.6. Griffith ObservatoryCreated By: Luke CahillGear: Sony a7S, Cine2 Picture Profile, Metabones Adapter, Canon 35mm f/1.4, Tokina 11-16mm f/2.87. KawasakiCreated By: Hangloose MediaGear: Sony a7S, ISO 6400 at f/5, Graded in Resolve 118. Night Vision: Los AngelesCreated By: Chris PritchardGear: Sony a7S, Canon 24-70 f/2.8, Canon 24-105 f/49. Midnight RidesCreated By: Gustave NelGear: Sony a7S, FE 24-70mm Vario- Tessar T* Zeiss Lens10. Subway to DowntownCreated By: Mike DeweyGear: Sony a7S, Canon 35mm f/2Want to read more about the Sony a7S? Check out a few of the following articles here on PremiumBeat:NAB 2014: Sony Releases A7s, 4K Output with 400k+ ISOa7S vs. GH4: Which is Better for Filmmaking?The Sony a7S vs RED Epic Dragon: Technically Not a Landslide VictoryThe Sony a7S Can Use Canon Batteries, Here’s How3 Reasons Why the Sony a7S Isn’t the Perfect Camera for FilmmakersFollow-Up Thoughts on My Sony a7S CritiqueDo you like shooting on the a7S? Share your experience in the comments below.
Earlier this week, five-star outside linebacker recruit Lyndell Wilson, who 247 Sports has ranked as the top player in the state of Alabama, announced his top seven teams on Twitter. USC was among the programs, and it looks like the Trojans are trying to take full advantage.Saturday, Lyndell tweeted out a photo of a dozen business cards he claims he was given by USC. The cards read that Wilson is the President and CEO of his own company, Lyndell Mack Wilson Inc. It’s a recruiting tactic we haven’t yet seen before.Wilson deleted the tweet shortly after posting it. We’re not sure if that means it’s potentially some sort of NCAA violation, or if he just didn’t want his address circulating the Internet. Ironically, under NCAA rules, Wilson can’t start a company and profit off of his likeness until he leaves school. Still, this is pretty cool.
A walk-on quarterback recently added to LSU’s roster is probably the most-appropriately named player in the history of the program. Meet Tiger Scheyd, a 6-foot, 179-pound redshirt freshman QB who became a member of Les Miles’ program this spring. Scheyd is surely deserving of his spot on the roster, but even if he’s not, his first name alone is reason enough to become a member of the Tigers. Momma we made it! pic.twitter.com/5qDcCtmPgy— Tiger Scheyd (@TigerScheyd) February 19, 2015Scheyd is from Miramar Beach, Fla.. He played his high school football at Fort Walton Beach. LSU opens its season Sept. 5 against McNeese State.
Cruise ship company Royal Caribbean Cruises (RCL) is to acquire a 66.7% equity stake in Silversea Cruises based on an enterprise value of approximately USD 2 billion.Royal Caribbean said that the price of the equity being acquired is around USD 1 billion, adding that it plans to finance the purchase through debt.In addition, Manfredi Lefebvre D’Ovidio, Chairman of Silversea Cruises, will qualify for an estimated contingent consideration of 472,000 RCL shares, payable upon achievement of certain 2019-2020 performance metrics.“Silversea is a crown jewel, and the acknowledged leader in luxury and expedition cruising, two key markets that are poised for growth,” Richard D. Fain, Chairman and CEO of Royal Caribbean Cruises, said. “Uniting our two companies presents an extraordinary opportunity to expand vacation options for guests and create revenue in strategic growth areas,” Fain added.The closing is expected to be completed later in the year, subject to customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals.