A tinkerer usually implies a human being with a brain. A man in his garage, for instance, might look around for spare parts to arrange into some new contraption. What would he think if he were told that his own brain was made that way? That’s what evolutionists commonly teach: our bodies and our brains were organized not by design or plan, but by nature’s tinkerer: a blind, aimless physical process that somehow cobbled parts together to allow us to think, and tinker, and even design master plans. A good example of this tendency in the popular press was published in Science Daily and PhysOrg. They reported on the “Genes to Cognition Programme” at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, a group attempting to discern connections between genes and brains (see original press release). The team concluded that brain size alone was not the deciding factor in human cognition. More complex synapses – the junctions between neurons – had to evolve first. Surprisingly, some of these complex junctions appear in yeast and other organisms we think don’t think. Some of these junctions humans use in learning and memory. The first arrival was the most impressive: “The number and complexity of proteins in the synapse first exploded when multicellular animals emerged, some billion years ago.” That’s even before the Cambrian explosion, when all life was single-celled. Another explosion occurred at the arrival of vertebrates, they said. This all suggested to the researchers a vision of the human brain as an example of tinkering. The view was best expressed by team member Richard Emes, lecturer in Bioinformatics at Keele University. He said, “It is amazing how a process of Darwinian evolution by tinkering and improvement has generated, from a collection of sensory proteins in yeast, the complex synapse of mammals associated with learning and cognition.” The project head, Seth Grant, used his tinkered brain to think that this is bringing human cognition closer to understanding its origins. “This work leads to a new and simple model for understanding the origins and diversity of brains and behaviour in all species,” he said. “We are one step closer to understanding the logic behind the complexity of human brains.” He did not specify how many steps have been traversed, how many lie ahead, or what direction to go, assuming he himself is tinkering with ideas that emerged from a product of tinkering. Can such a product have any assurance its cobbled neurons are capable of understanding anything? The tinkering metaphor was echoed in another context by Meredith Small at Live Science. She was trying to explain why men have breasts and nipples. Her explanation combined immiscible concepts: that we were produced by an aimless process, yet are somehow capable of thinking rationally about that process:In fact, men’s breasts are a good lesson in the higgledy-piggledy way that evolution works. Natural selection chooses for and against body parts, but there is no master plan that aims for the perfect creature. Men have boobs, women get facial hair, and we all stand in front of the mirror asking, “Why?” Each person is, in fact, a Rube Goldberg sort of organism pieced together by biology and made up of good parts, bad parts and parts that are inconsequential.She also claimed that we all start out as women in the embryo, but males only become male after testosterone kicks in about the sixth week of development. She called femaleness the default or “fallback” position of the human form. How she could know any of this was an unasked – and unanswered – question. Ironically, philosopher and astronomer John Herschel ridiculed Darwinian theory as the “law of higgledy-piggledy” after reading The Origin of Species. He was not speaking of how natural selection works. He was speaking of the concept of natural selection itself. Proposing a “law of nature” that depends on higgledy-piggledy ways is a higgledy-piggledy scientific idea, he meant; a law that acts haphazardly is no law at all.Some day these evolutionary explanations are going to sound so stupid, students will shake their heads in disbelief that smart people could have believed such things. Let’s hasten the day. Did it occur to Ms. Small that Rube Goldberg designed his comical devices by intelligent design, not by chance? As kludgy as they looked, they were quite effective. How much more effective are her eyes, hands and brain? It seems highly inconsiderate for her to employ them with finesse and then call them hodgepodges of bad parts. These scientists have convinced themselves that there is no master plan. Nothing in reality was designed. Everything is the result of happenstance. Parts emerge from the void. New neurons appear in unthinking cells, without any foreknowledge that some day scientists will employ them to think rationally. From the growing garage of various parts that emerged from the void, Tinker Bell, the goddess of evolution, sets to work, cobbling brains and breasts and everything else, and presto – here we are. How on earth can Meredith Small and her friends have any standards of rationality to know this is true? How can she have any standard of ethics to call parts good or bad? How can a cognitive “I” emerge from this mess to ask “Why?” or any other question, and believe itself capable of finding an answer, let alone comprehending it? If this mythology gives some comfort to the evolutionist, well, it’s a free country. We would like to just tug on their garment and say, ahem; by thinking, you are refuting your story. Yes indeed: stand in front of the mirror and ask, “Why?” Why do Meredith Small and Richard Emes and Seth Grant believe they are in touch with reality? Why do they claim an ontology that grounds an epistemology? Think, and think that your thinking matters, and you are now dealing in concepts. Concepts are not physical. Thought is not reducible to neurons, proteins and genes. Thought can employ material objects; it can even tinker with them and be influenced by them. But the moment you employ concepts, you cannot look in the mirror and see the image of Tinker Bell. You see the image of God. Whether you see or understand His Master Plan is debatable. But by thinking, you acknowledge that one exists. (Visited 71 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
25 April 2014It is time to pause, take breath and appreciate the miracle of South Africa; twenty years into the life of the nation, it is time to praise a bold, exciting country. This is the message of a new Brand South Africa advertising campaign marking the country’s 20 Years of Freedom.The new campaign, running across digital, print, radio and TV platforms, starts on Saturday, on the eve of Freedom Day and the 20th anniversary of South Africa’s first democratic elections. The campaign celebrates with pride, confidence and amazement what the country has achieved over the last 20 years.“We have overcome so much and come so far, it is time to celebrate the miracle of South Africa,” Wendy Tlou, Brand South Africa’s director of strategic marketing, said at an unveiling of the new TV “spots” in Johannesburg on Friday. “We can be proud to be South Africans. We are confident in the future we are building, and are constantly amazed at what we have achieved.”Where once Brand South Africa created a vision of South Africa to aspire to, the new campaign celebrates the fact that we are living up to our capabilities and in many ways exceeding our potential.“We are allowed to boast now,” Tlou said. “We have the Gautrain – the first high- speed rail link in Africa. We have world-class infrastructure. We scan the skies [with the Southern African Large Telescope, and soon with the Square Kilometre Array and its precursor, the MeerKAT radio telescope], and a South African has even been into space.”Filled with uplifting images of the country’s successes, the new TV spot opens with scenes of rural voters standing in the sun waiting to cast their first ever ballot. Images of Sandton’s growing and changing skyline celebrates South Africa’s growing economy and the country’s role as the economic engine of Africa.There are no big names in the new ad; it is a celebration of everyday South Africa, the people who have built the country from the ground up. The visuals continue, covering infrastructure – construction workers on site showing 20 years of new opportunities – and the Coega industrial development zone in the Eastern Cape.Tlou explained that choosing the visuals, especially showing construction, was the most satisfying. “For me it’s not just about houses built. Instead, each of those houses is a home for a family.”Building to the final image, a classroom of grade 1 kids, the class of 2030, the ad celebrates the “old man” who embodied all the values that South Africans aspire to – Nelson Mandela. By force of character, he brought peace and unity to a country fractured by a brutal past.It was important, Tlou stressed, that the soundtrack to the ad was a local composition. “We are after all a country with its own rhythm and beat.” The music is powerful, driving and ties in with the ad’s theme of looking back in celebration while looking forward to a promising future.So, “thank you South Africa”. “Rea leboga Afrikaborwa”. “Dankie Suid Afrika”. “Siyabonga iningizimu Afrika”.SAinfo reporter
2 July 2014President Jacob Zuma was on Tuesday presented with 4 850 books of condolences for Nelson Mandela, sent by South African embassies around the world and government offices around the country – and the books, along with thousands of message cards, are still coming in.South African missions abroad, and government offices at home, opened condolence books for people to pay their respects to Mandela following his passing away in Johannesburg on 5 December.Zuma paged through some of the books on Tuesday as Mandela Month got under way in South Africa, where July is dedicated to national humanitarian service in honour of the great man.Mandela’s birthday, 18 July, has been designated by the United Nations as International Mandela Day, when people around the world are urged to dedicate at least 67 minutes of their time to doing work in service of humanity.“I wish to thank all the people of South Africa and also the people of the world for taking their time to sign condolence books and to pay tribute to our beloved world icon, Tata Madiba, and to comfort his family,” Zuma said in a statement.“Let us make this a month of reflection and of building a caring society … in memory of Madiba and all heroes and heroines of our struggle for liberation. Let us work together to build the South Africa that Madiba dreamed about and worked for.”‘You made us who we are today’The Presidency shared the following selection of messages from the condolence books:“Our father may be gone but the ‘Madiba magic’ still lives on in our hearts.” (Mavis Sebothoma, Gauteng province)“A true leader who fought for liberty. The nation will forever love and cherish you.” (Sne, KwaZulu-Natal)“To our beloved Father of the Nation you made us for who we are today. You made us proud and taught us to stand for ourselves. Without you the world is nothing. Thank you Tata for being our hero. May your soul rest in peace.” (Molebogeng Setlhare, North West)“A man of great tenacity and unimaginable wisdom. Your spirit shall live on.” (Thembi Mlotha, Free State)“You were great Tata, siyohlala sikukhumbula ngelotsanvo ne mehluko lowentile etimphilweni letfu baba. Love you.” (Maria Mashele, Mpumalanga)“Rus vrose Madiba, jy het baie beteken vir ons land!! RIP.” (Mathane R.L., Western Cape)“Tata wethu indlela ubusenzela ngayo nempatho ubusiphathe ngayo, asiyi kuyilibala nakwiminyaka ezayo sakuhlala siyigcinilie. Hamba kahle Mthomkhulu akakho oyakufananawe.” (Zoliswa Mboya, Eastern Cape)“Robala ka khutso senatla. O e lwetse tokologo, re batho ka wena Nelson Mandela. Diphetogo e bile tse dintsi ka wena. Robala ka khutso tate.” (Onnica Modiba, Limpopo)SAinfo reporter
Related Posts klint finley Tags:#hack#Tools On the up side, the company seems to have also sped the service up both for the Web service and the browser extensions.As Louis Gray reminds us, Matt Cutts, the head of Google’s webspam team, wrote last year that faster loading will rank higher in search results. So using tools to speed up your site’s performance is of growing importance.The Chrome extension can be found here and the Firefox extension here. Google also offers an Apache module called mode_pagespeed for implementing its suggestions.Yahoo offers a competing service is called YSlow. Google is now offering its Page Speed service, which just released a Chrome extension last week, as a browser-agnostic Web service called Page Speed Online. Just enter a URL and get the results. It also has a new feature offering suggestions for mobile optimization.According to the Page Speed FAQ, “Page Speed Online provides the same analysis as the Page Speed browser extensions for Chrome and Firefox, without needing to install a browser extension.” Google suggests the browser extensions for testing pages not available to the public Internet, such as corporate intranets and sites under development. However, I receive slightly different results when running tests using the browswer extension instead of the Web-only service. 7 Types of Video that will Make a Massive Impac… How to Write a Welcome Email to New Employees? Why You Love Online Quizzes Growing Phone Scams: 5 Tips To Avoid
Here’s a simple script that equals huge timesavings – paste multiple keyframes in Adobe After Effects.One way to be more efficient in After Effects is to become a keyframe wiz. Being adept at keyframing means a faster workflow and more dynamic projects. However, despite the powerful keyframe features in After Effects, some functionality still falls a bit short. The After Effects wizzes at AEScripts.com have created a really handy script to address one such function, copying and pasting multiple keyframes.The really awesome thing about this AE script is that you can copy and keyframe on multiple layers.There’s a multitude of uses for this simple After Effects script to speed up your video editing or motion design work. Very handy for duplicating the motion of several elements onto several NEW elements (images, graphics, etc). See the video below to see it in action.Maybe Adobe will catch wind and include this functionality in future AE versions. Until then, give this script a spin….you may catch yourself wondering what you ever did without it.“Name your own price” and download the Paste Multiple Keyframes script from AEScripts.comFor AE keyframing tips see our previous post: 5 After Effects Keyframe Tips
DefinitionA knee MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and muscles and tissues.An MRI does not use radiation (x-rays). Single MRI images are called slices. The images can be stored on a computer or printed on film. One exam produces many images.Alternative NamesMRI – kneeHow the test is performedYou will wear a hospital gown or clothes without metal zippers or snaps (such as sweatpants and a t-shirt). Certain types of metal can cause blurry images.You will lie on a narrow table that slides into a large tunnel-like scanner.Some exams use a special dye (contrast). Most of the time, you will get the dye through a vein (IV) in your arm or hand before the test. Sometimes, the dye is given into a joint. The dye helps the radiologist see certain areas more clearly.During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch you from another room. The test most often lasts 30-60 minutes, but may take longer.How to prepare for the testYou may be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4 – 6 hours before the scan.Tell your doctor if you are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine to help you feel sleepy and less anxious. Your doctor may suggest an “open” MRI, in which the machine is not as close to the body.Before the test, tell your health care provider if you have:advertisementBrain aneurysm clipsCertain types of artificial heart valvesHeart defibrillator or pacemakerInner ear (cochlear) implantsKidney disease or dialysis (you may not be able to receive contrast)Recently placed artificial jointsCertain types of vascular stentsWorked with sheet metal in the past (you may need tests to check for metal pieces in your eyes)Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner:Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room.Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged.Pins, hairpins, metal zippers, and similar metallic items can distort the images.Removable dental work should be taken out just before the scan.How the test will feelAn MRI exam causes no pain.You will need to lie still. Too much movement can blur MRI images and cause errors.The table may be hard or cold, but you can ask for a blanket or pillow. The machine makes loud thumping and humming noises when turned on. You can wear ear plugs to help block out the noise.An intercom in the room allows you to speak to someone at any time. Some MRIs have televisions and special headphones to help the time pass.There is no recovery time, unless you were given a medicine to relax. After an MRI scan, you can return your normal diet, activity, and medicines.Why the test is performedYour doctor may order this test if you have:An abnormal result on a knee x-ray or bone scanA feeling that your knee is giving away in the knee jointBuildup of joint fluid behind the knee (Bakers cyst)Fluid collecting in the knee jointInfection of the knee jointKnee cap injuryKnee pain with feverKnee locking when you walk or movingSigns of damage to the knee muscle, cartilage, or ligamentsKnee pain that does not get better with treatmentYou may also have this test to check your progress after knee surgery.Normal ValuesA normal result means your knee looks okay.What abnormal results meanAbnormal results may be due to a sprain or tear of the ligaments in the knee area.Abnormal results may also be due to:Arthritis of the kneeAvascular necrosis (also called osteonecrosis)Bone tumor or cancerBroken boneBuildup of joint fluid behind the knee (Bakers cyst)Infection in the bone (osteomyelitis)InflammationInjury of the knee capTalk to your health care provider if you have questions or concerns.What the risks areMRI contains no radiation. There have been no reported side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves.The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions to the substance are rare. However, gadolinium can be harmful to people with kidney problems that need dialysis. If you have kidney problems, please tell your health care provider before the test.The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well. It can also cause a piece of metal inside your body to move or shift. For safety reasons, please dont bring anything that contains metal into the scanner room.advertisementSpecial considerationsTests that may be done instead of a knee MRI include:CT scan of the kneeKnee x-rayReferencesWilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, eds. Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 5.DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez?s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 23.Grainger RG, Thomsen HS, Morcos SK, Koh DM, Roditi G. Intravascular contrast media for radiology, CT, and MRI. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allisons Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 2.Review Date:1/17/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
Read more Topics … we have a small favour to ask. More people, like you, are reading and supporting the Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism than ever before. And unlike many news organisations, we made the choice to keep our reporting open for all, regardless of where they live or what they can afford to pay.The Guardian will engage with the most critical issues of our time – from the escalating climate catastrophe to widespread inequality to the influence of big tech on our lives. At a time when factual information is a necessity, we believe that each of us, around the world, deserves access to accurate reporting with integrity at its heart.Our editorial independence means we set our own agenda and voice our own opinions. Guardian journalism is free from commercial and political bias and not influenced by billionaire owners or shareholders. This means we can give a voice to those less heard, explore where others turn away, and rigorously challenge those in power.We hope you will consider supporting us today. We need your support to keep delivering quality journalism that’s open and independent. Every reader contribution, however big or small, is so valuable. Support The Guardian from as little as $1 – and it only takes a minute. Thank you. Bath Attwood’s injury problems began at an England training camp before the 2016 autumn internationals and he has managed only 71 minutes for Bath since the start of 2017. He is matter of fact about the injury – “every second-row in the Premiership, whether he’s 20 or 40, will suffer degeneration of the knee cartilage” – but it is the mental strain of continued setbacks that prompted a loan move to Toulon in February.“It has been particularly difficult with so many false summits along the way. It has been exhausting emotionally to feel like you’re almost there and then have another step back. There’s a real frustration and it is emotionally very tough to negotiate.”Attwood addresses the stress of a long spell on the sidelines candidly but with an injury spike taking hold across the Premiership, he fears others are suffering in silence. He has only praise for the help offered by the Rugby Players’ Association, as well as Bath, but believes compulsory counselling sessions for players with long-term injuries would avoid anyone in need of assistance slipping through the net.“A private counselling session that, as a compulsory measure, you had to attend would take the pressure off, there’s no stigma. The boys can complain about it and if they don’t get anything out of it that’s fine, but the small catchment of players who feel awkward about asking for professional help would receive it.“Often, it’s difficult to open up to someone you know. Even your wife, friends, family – within those close relationships it can be difficult to say: ‘I’m really down about this, I’m really sad about this situation.’ And I wonder if there are more and more people injured then there are more and more going through the stresses associated with injury.”It remains early days but Attwood has made three consecutive starts for Toulon. The move came as a surprise when it was announced but seems beneficial for both clubs – Toulon were light at second-row and Bath are set to benefit in the long run. They also stand to gain financially because, while Attwood is in France, he is exempt from the salary cap. Attwood, meanwhile, is relishing his new surroundings, his sense of adventure in overdrive on the Côte d’Azur. “Just to get into the changing rooms and have that buzz before the game, it’s something you don’t realise you miss. I’ve never been one for banging the drum or whacking my head against the wall but the emotional saga that comes with playing on a matchday – you can’t replicate that. Rugby union Dave Attwood felt like a fraud. He has given nearly seven years of service to Bath and is aware he was not thinking rationally, but day-to-day involvement without the release at weekends – and a series of aborted comebacks – left him emotionally exhausted by his chronic knee injury.“You feel like you’ve got a real lack of purpose because your job is to play rugby,” Attwood says. “It would be like if you were a data analyst and someone took away your computer. Even in conversations with [the Bath owner] Bruce Craig and the coaches, you feel like an imposter because you’re not doing what you feel obligated to do. Everyone is very understanding but the rational side of it is never the dominant side, is it?” Share on Twitter Share on Messenger Share via Email Sign up to the Breakdown for the latest rugby union news Support The Guardian Stars, drama and upsets: what to expect in Six Nations’ final straight Share on Facebook interviews Since you’re here… Reuse this content Share on LinkedIn “If you’d asked me at Christmas if I was going to Toulon I’d have laughed in your face. It was out of the blue but we were looking for a way to get me on to the field in a very different environment.”As he is only on loan, it is to Attwood’s credit he has immersed himself in his overseas experience, arranging French lessons on top of those provided by Toulon, who are still in contention in the Top 14 and the Champions Cup. “To get the most out of it, one of the first things I can do is get up to speed with the language,” he says. “As an experienced player, my communication is one of my main skills and that is significantly hindered if you can’t speak the language.”As a youngster Attwood drew comparisons to Martin Johnson and whereas his aggression got him into trouble in the past, at 30 he is now a seasoned, if still formidable, second-row. Indeed, considering how well stocked England are at lock, it is easy to forget Attwood has played twice under Eddie Jones. With a year left on his Bath contract he still harbours ambitions of returning to the fold and while Toulon are in action on Saturday night he will keep an eye on events in Paris a couple of hours earlier. “It would be good to further impart on my coaches the fine English stock that I come from.”With such a long lay-off, however, Attwood has inevitably been contemplating life after rugby. He has a degree in physics and philosophy, but says: “Having the credentials for a life after rugby does not correspond to being prepared.“I’ve renovated houses in Bath, I’ve been doing a bit of carpentry and woodwork, making furniture, getting a feel for things I’d like to do. As soon as you start your career you should be preparing for life after the game.”For the time being, though, Attwood can be forgiven for simply enjoying the present. Read more Share on WhatsApp Toulon Share on Pinterest