The seawater that comes into contact with the base of a floating ice shelf is modified as a result of the phase changes that occur. Melting is prevalent in the deepest parts of the subice cavity, and this drives a buoyant flow of Ice Shelf Water (ISW) along the sloping ice shelf base. The ascent of the ISW toward the surface of the ocean causes supercooling, because the freezing point rises with the falling pressure, and this induces a change from melting to freezing. Assuming that seed crystals exist, the ISW now fulfills the condition for the rapid growth of disc-shaped frazil ice crystals, which may subsequently settle (upward) out of suspension under the action of gravity. A simple numerical model of these processes has been developed, based on the theory of inclined plumes. The ISW is treated as a turbulent, particle-laden gravity current ascending a reactive boundary and containing a suspended crystal load which evolves in response to the supercooling of the water and the inverted sedimentation of the crystals. The frazil ice has two important effects on the behavior of the ISW plume. Because the generation of crystals through-out the plume provides such a large area over which phase changes can occur, the conversion of supercooling into ice happens much more readily than is possible through turbulent transfer of heat and mass at the ice shelf base. A suspended crystal load reduces the bulk density of the ISW, so that a growing suspension causes the plume to accelerate, while deposition of crystals onto the ice shelf effects a deceleration. There are positive feedbacks in that an acceleration of the plume induces more rapid crystal growth, while a deceleration allows suspended crystals to settle out more easily.
Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) told the Vermont Energy and Climate Action Conference December 4 that Vermont leads the nation in electric energy efficiency and in making great strides toward sustainable energy. He also announced that he secured $90,000 to support Vermont town energy committees.‘Investing in these local efforts will help our state make real and significant progress toward meeting our energy vision,’ he told the conference’s annual meeting in Fairlee, Vt. Sanders spoke to the some 200 participants by telephone from Washington, where the U.S. Senate was in session on Saturday.Energy committees have until Jan. 31 to apply for grants of $1,000 to $3,000 for projects including community energy challenges, cooperatives to promote bulk purchase of energy services, do-it-yourself weatherization workshops, residential energy reduction campaigns, school programs and other initiatives.The senator urged the conference to continue efforts that have made Vermont a national trend setter. The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy ranked Vermont No. 1 of all states on electric energy efficiency.Through Efficiency Vermont and town energy committees, Vermonters last year spent 3.7 cents per kilowatt hour to achieve energy efficiencies. It would have cost four times as much to generate the same amount of new power. ‘That means Vermont is saving energy and saving money, a real win-win,’ Sanders said. Vermont last year met nearly 2 percent of its electric power demand through energy efficiency. If the nation did half as well, we could do without 190 medium-sized coal plants and save consumers nearly $80 billion over the next decade.Vermont also is making headway on sustainable energy. Sanders said 45 schools are heated with biomass; geothermal energy heats and cools Champlain College, the Bennington Veterans Home, and at the Vietnam Memorial Rest Stop on I-89 in Sharon, and new farm methane, wind, biomass and solar projects are being developed throughout the state.‘I don’t have to tell you though, that we have more work to do, Sanders added. ‘We need to be more energy independent, less reliant on fossil fuel, and more reliant on local sustainable energy sources. Our vision for Vermont is to be a leader and a model for the rest of the nation in terms of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and creating jobs in energy efficiency and sustainable energy.’
The Pension Insurance Corporation, a specialist insurer of defined benefit pension funds, has invested £250m in debt issued by the City of London Corporation for an ambitious programme of major projects designed to benefit the Square Mile, London and the UK.The projects include the proposed relocation and development of three of the city’s historic wholesale food markets – Billingsgate (fish), Smithfield (meat) and New Spitalfields (fruit, veg and flower) markets – to a former power station site in Barking and Dagenham. It would also help fund the Museum of London’s relocation to West Smithfield.PIC was awarded the largest share of the £450m transaction, reflecting the firm’s reputation as a significant investor in social infrastructure. The proceeds will refinance a £125m bridge loan used to acquire the Barking site, as well as preparing the site for development.The investment will not be drawn down by the City Corporation until 2021, locking in borrowing costs. The transaction was jointly arranged by Lloyds Bank and Santander. Jeremy Mayhew, chair of the finance committee at the City of London Corporation, said: “We are pleased to have secured this funding from PIC. The team showed great flexibility and knowledge in structuring this investment so that it meets our need to draw down the funds this year and in 2021.”Allen Twyning, head of debt origination at PIC, added that this type of long-dated investment provides a “good match for PIC’s long-term liabilities with a tailored maturity profile”.Stephen Valvona, director of private placements at Lloyds Bank, said: “This is an important financing which demonstrates strong investor interest and confidence in the City of London.”The transaction reflects the flexibility of the private placement market, enabling the City of London to achieve a broad spread of maturities from 25-45 years, attract a mix of delays to funding to suit their requirements, and secure favourable long-term pricing, he said.
Greek oil and gas company Energean has submitted to the authorities of the Republic of Cyprus applications to import and supply natural gas to Cyprus, starting in 2021.Energean is the operator of the Karish and Tanin deepwater field developments located in the Eastern Mediterranean, approximately 90km offshore Israel.Energean said on Tuesday that the submission of the applications followed the ‘Karish to Cyprus Preliminary Pipeline Development Plan’ that had already been presented to Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority.According to the plan, natural gas will be transported through pipelines from the Karish offshore block to the Energean Power FPSO, and from there through a pipeline to Vassiliko, Cyprus, where it will landfall.The pipeline from the Energean Power FPSO to Vassiliko will have a total length of 215 kilometres and transport natural gas from the Karish North field, offshore Israel, which contains 25 BCM of discovered recoverable resources.Total investment will be circa $350 million and will be funded by Energean. The Republic of Cyprus will bear no upfront cost. Provided that there will be no delays in permitting procedures, the project will allow the Republic of Cyprus to receive competitively priced natural gas from 2021.Mathios Rigas, CEO of Energean, stated: “Energean’s proposal offers the Republic of Cyprus the option to switch to natural gas as soon as possible, and under the most competitive terms. Execution of the proposal will bring competition to the Cypriot natural gas market, decrease energy costs across the economy and result in enhanced diversity and security of supply.“Our proposal enhances the planning of the Republic of Cyprus and the security of supply, as it is supplementary to the LNG import procedures launched by the Cypriot Government. We expect that the Republic of Cyprus will take advantage of the options that the market offers for the benefit of the Cypriot economy and the consumers.”Power plants in CyprusEnergean has already signed Letters of Intent (LOIs) with all three IPPs that have been granted a license to construct combined cycle power plants in Cyprus: Power Energy Cyprus, Lysarea Energia, and Paramount Energy Corporation.The Energean Power FPSO has a capacity of 8BCM per year and Energean has already signed firm GSPAs with Israeli IPPs and industrial consumers for 4.5 BCM per year for an average period of 16 years as of 2021.The FPSO hull was undocked and floated out from the COSCO Shipyards’ dock in early October 2019. The sail away of the FPSO hull from China to Singapore is expected in late 2019.In related news, Cyprus has recently approved the development plan and granted an exploitation license for the Aphrodite offshore gas field to a Noble Energy-led consortium. First gas is expected to start flowing in 2025. Aphrodite is a gas discovery made by Noble energy offshore Cyprus in 2011. The field, located approximately 170 kilometers south of Limassol, was declared commercial in 2015.The development plan envisions deployment of a newbuild floating production facility at the Aphrodite reservoir, with an estimated maximum production capacity of approx. 800 MMCF per day, through five production wells at the initial stage, and export of natural gas to the Egyptian market.
Goa: FC Goa defeated Chennaiyin FC 3-0 in their opening game of the Hero Indian Super League 2019-20 season at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Goa on Wednesday. The ISL runners-up were a step ahead of their opponents in all areas of the field and were the better team overall. New signing Seiminlen Doungel scored on his debut to break the deadlock in the 30th minute. All-time ISL top-scorer Ferran Corominas struck in the 62nd minute and substitute Carlos Pena added a third in the 81st minute to get the better of an unimpressive Chennaiyin. The hosts were quick to get on the ball and spray passes around right from the start. However, it were the visitors who first went close when Dragos Firtulescu was fed through on goal in the 12th minute. A last-ditch Seriton Fernandes challenge prevented a catastrophic start for the hosts. Sergio Lobera’s men soon regained their rhythm to pose a serious threat to the Chennaiyin defence. In the 19th minute, Ferran Corominas picked up the ball from midfield and released Seiminlen Doungel into the box.Chennaiyin goalkeeper Vishal Kaith was on to the ball in a flash before Goa’s new signing could pounce and take a shot. A minute later, Manvir Singh attempted a powerful strike after making room for himself at the edge of the box and once again, Kaith was up to the task, pulling off a diving save to his left. Goa’s intent in the attacking third was rewarded at the half an hour mark. Manvir Singh beat his marker and crossed into the box from the right flank. The striker’s cross took a double deflection off Eli Sabia and Doungel before rolling into the net. The hosts remained on top of the game and refused to sit back after taking the lead. Brandon Fernandes’ piledriver just before half-time had Kaith well beaten but the ball flew just wide. Ferran Corominas’s curling effort a minute later was tipped away by an acrobatic Kaith who kept Chennaiyin in the game. John Gregory replaced Dhanpal Ganesh with the more creative Anirudh Thapa in midfield to swing the contest back in his team’s favour. The hosts, however, proved difficult to break down. Goa continued to create chances and soon doubled their lead. Manvir Singh broke away through the middle and found Jackichand Singh in space to his right. The winger’s low cross into the center of the box was guided into the net in by ISL’s all-time top scorer Corominas, who scored his 35th league goal. Chennaiyin struggled in the attacking third and were unable to find a way back into the game.Also Read | Indian Super League 2019: Kerala Blasters Beat ATK, Bartholomew Ogbeche Scores TwiceLallianzuala Chhangte did have a chance to pull one back when he tried to curl the ball into the top right corner from the edge of the box, but Mohammed Nawaz produced a brilliant save to preserve Goa’s clean sheet. FC Goa added a third in the 81st minute and sealed the win when a Brandon free-kick from the left was poked into the net by Carlos Pena at the near post. For all the Latest Sports News News, Football News News, Download News Nation Android and iOS Mobile Apps.
By Steve KeatingMONTREAL,(Reuters)-Lewis Hamilton’s love affair with the Canadian Grand Prix reached new heights on Sunday as he won the race for a sixth time and slashed Sebastian Vettel’s Formula One championship lead to 12 points.After watching Ferrari sweep to a one-two finish two weeks ago in Monaco, Mercedes hit back with a dominating display as Hamilton cruised to his 56th career win, a leisurely 19.7 seconds in front of team mate Valtteri Bottas.It was Hamilton’s third victory of the season and also his third in a row at the sun-bathed but windswept Circuit Gilles Villeneuve.“I had my first pole here, I had my first win here 10 years ago and to repeat it this weekend is incredibly special,” said Hamilton.“I really have to thank my team for making this possible. The guys back at the factory have worked so hard to really fix what we had in the last race, bring it here and really give it to the Ferraris. I’m over the moon.”The Briton might have cut Vettel’s lead further if not for an inspired charge by the German who fought his way to fourth after a damaged front wing forced a pitstop and dropped him to the back of the field early on.Red Bull’s Australian Daniel Ricciardo came home third, for the third race in a row, to complete the podium.That gave his team something to cheer after young Dutchman Max Verstappen had his race come to a premature end with mechanical problems while running second and challenging Hamilton for the lead.Force India enjoyed a great weekend in Canada with Mexican Sergio Perez taking fifth ahead of French team mate Esteban Ocon, who was not happy at the finish.Canadian teenage rookie Lance Stroll answered some of his critics by scoring his first points in Formula One for Williams, crossing the line in ninth place to the cheers of a sell-out home crowd.But there was yet more disappointment for Fernando Alonso and McLaren when the double world champion’s engine gave up yet again two laps from the finish, leaving the struggling outfit still the only team on the grid to yet score a point.